Some thoughts on the issues you've been talking about.
1) Middle Age Urban Density:
This is a theme still currently debated among historians; moreover it's difficult to set an "average" pattern for the whole Medieval Europe, considering the differences between one region and another, and mostly the differences between one period and another. If we take into account middle Middle Age (say, right before the 14th century crisis), we see that cities generally had anywhere from 75 (Cologne, Germany) to 83 (Gand, Low Countries) to 330 (Paris, France) to 910 (Genoa, Italy) inhabitants per hectare
. It seems some Polish cities of high Middle Age could host even 1,000 or 2,000 inhabitants per hectare. Very crowded indeed.
Generally, Middle Age cities were rather small, rarely going over 600 hectares, even for the largest ones. Italian cities were among the most populated ones, but were generally smaller (around 100-150 hectares) than other European cities of the same size, becouse buildings were built with multiple floors (two or three, or even more) - where most often European cities had rarely more than one additional floor above the ground level.
Moreover, we should consider that family sizes of urban
families tend to be rather smaller than those of rural ones (not to talk about aristocratic families, which were the best example of enlarged families). So, urban families could certainly have an additional member (an apprentice, in case of an artisan family, for example; or a servant); often, additional childrens of the family head were usually sent to work as servants or apprentices in other families or shops, so they didn't lived anymore with their family for a long period of time.
2) City "blocks" and Specularum map:
I think the size of Specularum from GAZ1 (about 250 hectares, not including "green" areas) is rather realistic for a city of that size. Considering a population of about 60,000 at AC 1000, we end up with an urban density of 240 people per hectare, which is also credible.
Regarding the "zoomed" map of the Mirror Bay in GAZ1's inside cover, I think we could solve the problem AllanP poses in his first post having as a "block" (say, with the 5 buildings) each of the ones he indicates as "buildings". After all, if you look at the abovementioned Mirror Bay map, you'll see that most "buildings" end up having a way too large size (50'-80' by side each... ). I suggest to have these "buildings" be instead the "blocks" of 5 buildings each which AllanP indicated.
This way you will have 509 "clusters" of average 5 "blocks" each, with each "block" including an average of 5 "buildings" (here meaning houses, that is places where ONE family lives - so, even a single floor). This calculation gives an average of 63.624 inhabitants (509 x 5 blocks x 5 buildings x 5 inhabitants), which I think is what we're searching for.
: Just looking at Mirror Bay map of GAZ1; did you noticed the position
of the Church of Karameikos' Cathedral? The entrance of the church is put in front of a series of clustered buildings! Not even a square before it!
I wonder just HOW much time it's needed to get to Jowett's cerimonies in time...
3) Karameikos' population:
This is another troublesome issue - and, unfortunately, it doesn't regards Karameikos only, but most countries given a set population in canon sources.
I mean, Middle Age urban vs rural ratio was usually 5-10% vs 95-90% in most of Europe. Only in late Middle Ages (late 15th century) the ratio would decrease to 40% vs 60%, but ONLY in highly urbanized countries, like Low Countries and Italy.
Strictly taken, this would mean that a mostly-wilderness (thereby rural) Karameikos with an urban population of about 127.000 inhabitants (sum up all town- or city-size settlements, counting Specularum at 60,000), and with a urban/rural ratio as favorable as 15%/85%, the overall population of the country should be about 850,000 inhabitants.
With a population of 350,000 (average, as per PWAs, and taking into account the elves which shouldn't be considered rural at all), the largest urban population conceivable by a country like Karameikos would be about 50,000... Even if we considered that a part of the urban population is in truth made up of workers in the fields around the city, the figure doesn't improve that much.
Of course we should take into account grain and wheat trade that could support a larger urban population, BUT Middle Age cities couldn't rely on a regular long-distance trade for their immediate food requirements, becouse sudden troubles (storms at sea, small surplus in the exporting country, wars, blocked roads) could have plunged the city into a famine. Grains were thus usually traded only on very short distances (from rural areas surrounding the city to the city itself).
[Of course, the situation was different in the Roman world, when the support of the imperial navy could ensure the timely supplying of grain from Sicily and Egypt to the capital. Note, in fact, that during the last century of the republic that supplies were often blocked before getting to Rome by pirate ships, which had to be paid with tributes before they released the grain and lifted the capital from the danger of a famine.]
That said, I think one of the following should be considered: (a) lowering the Karameikan cities' population; or (b) rising the country overall population.
"The prince should study historical accounts of the actions of great men, to see how they conducted themselves in war; he should study the
causes of their victories and defeats, so as to avoid the defeats and imitate the victories" N. Machiavelli, The Prince, XIV, 5